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ABC Delta Glossary

A

Abdominal

Related to the abdomen

Acute

Fresh, just happened

Albumin

Protein involved in the transport of blood needed substances (hormones, calcium, fatty acids, drugs..)

ALP

Alkaline phosphatases – Enzymes found predominantly in the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and bones. Their dosage is mainly prescribed as part of a liver check-up or if bone disease is suspected

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase – Transaminase enzyme predominantly present in the liver

Anamnesis

The process by which the physician is able to reconstruct the patient’s medical history

Antibodies

A protein synthesized by the body in the presence of an antigen, whose effect it neutralizes. Antibodies are notably involved in the mechanisms of immunity

Antigen

A foreign substance of the body capable of eliciting an immune response to eliminate it

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase – Predominant transaminase enzyme in liver, muscle and heart

Asymptomatic

Without visible symptoms

Ascites

Abdominal dropsy

B

Bile

Fluid produced and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder to aid digestion

Bilirubin

Yellow pigment contained in the bile. An excess of bilirubin in the blood produces jaundice

Biopsy

Removal of a tissue fragment from a living being for microscopic examination

C

CBC

The Complete Blood Count is a test counting the cells composing the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

Child Pugh Score

Score for assessing the severity of hepatitis with a prognosis score based on the results of medical examinations

Chronic

Persistent, enduring

Chronic hepatitis

Persistent liver inflammation that lasts at least six months. It mostly caused by hepatitis B, C and D viruses

Cirrhosis

Liver disease characterized by a progressive replacement of healthy liver tissue with fibrous tissue (fibrosis) that gradually impairs liver function. It is a serious and progressive disease

D

Decompensation (hepatic)

Lack of the body’s ability to compensate for the gradual failure of the liver as a result of cirrhosis

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid is the hereditary material containing genetic information

E

Enzyme

Protein capable of activating or accelerating a chemical reaction

F

FibroMeter®

Blood test used to aid in the evaluation and management of liver fibrosis. Fibrometer test generates a score between 0 and 1 which represents the probability of having fibrosis or cirrhosis

FibroScan®

A test that measures the hardness of the liver. The more fibrosis there is, the harder the liver is. This test has the advantage of being painless and non-invasive

Fibrosis

Modification of a tissue following an operation, chemical agents, a virus resulting in a loss of elasticity

Fibrotest®

A non-invasive blood test that doses different blood markers to diagnose and quantify liver fibrosis

Fulminant

Occurring in a flash, rapid and violent

G

Gastrointestinal

Concerning the stomach and intestines

GGT

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (or transpeptidase). Enzyme producted by the liver cells

Golgi apparatus

Cellular organelle in which the transfer and sorting of molecules as well as the synthesis of certain proteins take place

H

Hepatic

Relating to the liver

Hepatic decompensation

Lack of the body’s ability to compensate for the gradual failure of the liver as a result of cirrhosis

Hepatitis B

A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus or HBV that attacks liver cells and causes inflammation. This virus is mainly found in the blood and sexual fluids of infected people

Hepatitis D

A disease caused by the hepatitis D virus or HDV that needs the hepatitis B virus to develop.  This superinfection results in a much more severe disease than hepatitis B virus alone

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as HCC, is a cancer of the liver that develops from liver cells (or hepatocytes). It occurs in the vast majority of cases on a liver that is already damaged by a chronic disease

Hepatocytes

Liver cells

I

Ikterus

Jaundice

Incubation period

Period of time between infection and breakout of an infectious disease

Invasive

Method of medical exploration inducing a lesion of the organism

J

Jaundice

A yellow coloration of the whites of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes that indicates the presence of bilirubin normally eliminated by the liver

L

Liver

Organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen. It has a synthesising and purifying role

Liver biopsy

Liver tissue sample

Liver cirrhosis

Chronic disease of the liver in which connective tissue proliferates and replaces healthy liver tissue (fibrosis). This gradually leads to impairment of liver function. It is a serious and progressive disease that can lead to hardening, scarring and shrinkage of the liver

Liver cancer

Liver cancer occurs when abnormal cells form uncontrollably in the cells of the liver (or hepatocytes)

Livercellcarcinom

Livercellcarcinom or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer of the liver that develops from liver cells (hepatocytes) and, in the vast majority of cases, arises from a liver that has already been damaged as a result of chronic disease

Liver failure

Inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic functions

M

Metavir (score)

Score determined by analysis of the liver sample taken at biopsy. The letter A indicates hepatitis activity, the letter F indicates the degree of fibrosis. These two letters are associated with a number that weights the severity of the disease

Morphological

Relating to structure and form of an organism

N

Non-Invasive

Method of medical exploration which does not induce injury to the organism

O

Oesophageal varices

Varicose veins of the oesophagus

P

PCR

Acronym for “Polymerase Chain Reaction”. It is a technique to obtain a large number of identical copies of the same DNA fragment

PT

Prothrombin time. A test that analyzes the blood factors involved in clotting

R

RNA

Ribonucleic acid. RNA is synthesized from DNA to which it is chemically very close. It is essential for the synthesis of proteins

Ribonucleoprotein

Complex of ribonucleic acid and RNA-binding protein

S

Serology
Study of serums, in particular their properties and their evolution over time

Serum

Blood fluid freed from cells and proteins

Simultaneous infection

In a simultaneous infection, the hepatitis D virus (HDV) enters the body at the same time as the hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Superinfection

In a superinfection, the hepatitis D virus infects a person who is already a carrier of a chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus.

T

Transaminase

Enzymes found inside cells, especially in the liver and muscles. A distinction is made between ALT and AST

Transcription

A cellular process for copying a DNA molecule into a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, which is itself necessary for the production of proteins

Translation (protein translation)

Cellular process for the synthesis of a protein from a messenger RNA strand (mRNA)

Transplantation

Surgical act which consists of transferring a whole functional organ from one individual to another individual

V

Viral load

Amount of virus present in the blood or an organ. It is used to assess the severity of the infection and the effectiveness of treatment

Virion

Biological entity that constitutes viruses (synonym = virus particle)

Virulence

Intensity of the infection

Virus incidence

Occurence of the virus

Sources

SOS Hépatites. Lexique Médical. Available on http://www.soshepatites.org/plateforme/services/lexique-medicale/ Consulted in April 2020

Dictionnaire Larousse. Available on https://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/francais  Consulted in April 2020

Dictionnaire Futura Science Available on https://www.futura-sciences.com/sciences/definitions/ Consulted in April 2020